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1. Introduction

  1. The Netherlands: Globalization and National Identity - CRC Press Book
  2. Globalization and Nationalism
  3. Culture in the age of globalisation

Against this background of perpetual interdependence and competition for influence, the major question is that of the resilience of culture i. One of the major issues, in this regard, will be that of religious identity. This will become the major challenge in relations between the Western and Muslim world, and the answer to this question may ultimately decide about social and political stability not only in the greater Middle East, but also in the Euro-Mediterranean region.

What are the implications of culture for peaceful co-existence among states, and what are the risks of political instrumentalization of culture in the global concert of powers?

The Netherlands: Globalization and National Identity - CRC Press Book

As we have explained above, culture — more specifically, cultural identity — is a dialectical phenomenon. Culture is constantly being shaped and reshaped by interaction with other cultures — and in the era of globalization considerably more so. World order is the status of relations between states, peoples and cultures or civilizations, in the most universal sense at a given moment in history.

In our era of globalization, it has become an ever more complex system of interaction and rules. Ideally, it will result in a balance of power , but often in history, as in the present transitory phase, it has been characterized by its absence. It is exactly in the latter case — namely in the absence of a balance of power — that the role and position of culture in the global interplay of forces is most fragile and delicate , but at the same time also must crucial, indeed indispensable — as is now the case — for the transition from a unipolar to a multipolar order.

Whatever the answers to the questions about the structural relationship, or interdependence, between culture and power and its implications for the international system may be, the dialectics of cultural identity will always make itself felt in some shape or form. Especially under conditions of unequal power relations and social injustice, whether perceived or real, a forceful assertion of a cultural paradigm, its propagation as universal standard, may provoke an attitude of resistance and lead to new self-awareness of those who are expected to adapt to a dominant culture.

In recent decades, around the turn of the century, the dynamics of cultural identity has been particularly felt in relations between the Muslim and Western or, more generally, secular world, albeit in a different kind — one that now appears to shake the very foundations of world order and challenge the underlying paradigm of peaceful co-existence. The emergence of Islamic revival movements — whether Sunni- or Shia-inspired — has marked a process of ever-increasing cultural alienation, often fuelled by conflicts of interests and geopolitical aspirations.

One of the most consequential events, in that regard, was the Islamic revolution in Iran in Though dismissed by most pundits outside of the country, a broad popular movement eventually prevailed against an Emperor who considered himself invulnerable — as ally of some of the most powerful countries of the time — and who had arrogantly lectured leaders in Europe about political stability and good statesmanship. Whichever its organizational form or actual status may be in terms of governance and territorial control, this new movement understands itself as the very antithesis to Western secular civilization.

It derives its strength not only from the alienation of Sunnis in Iraq and Syria since the events of and respectively , and the centuries-old Sunni-Shia rift, but from a deep sense of cultural humiliation that accumulated over decades of colonial tutelage and foreign, essentially Western, supremacy in the region — in fact since the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I.

This is a lesson that should be heeded by those global actors that have embarked on a strategy of exporting their culture in the name of universal values. As Amy Chua has brilliantly shown, even the most powerful actors in history, the global empires, were not immune from the dynamics of cultural identity. Only those that were prepared to include into their realm the cultures and religions on the territory they ruled, to accept and integrate distinct identities instead of trying to exclude and eventually eradicate them, were able to preserve their rule and guarantee a stable order over a longer period of time, often over centuries.

A just and stable world order will require mutual respect among cultures and civilizations — and even more so in our era of global interconnectivity. Culture must not be made an instrument of world order, or a tool to enforce obedience from the less powerful. No one can arrest history and impose his paradigm upon the rest of the world until the end of times. A stable world order requires a balance of power in a multidimensional sense including politics, economy and culture. In the 21 st century, and under the conditions of globalization, this is expected to be a multipolar one, based on a system of rules agreed upon among sovereign nations.

This is exactly the dilemma the world is faced with when cultural paradigms exclude each other in the name of universality. Negation of this truth may lead to a state of global disorder — with no end in sight. You may also like: Scientific approaches in the age of anthropological crisis Constructing identity in the context of globalisation and the erosion of traditional norms Cultural exchange for dialogue and peace Cultural identity as a factor in global disorder: The need for education.

Studies in International Relations, Vol. Vienna: International Progress Organization, , pp. Husserliana, Vol. Dordrecht: Kluwer, Nye, Jr. New York: Public Affairs, Global pollsters and psychologists have studied individual differences in the sense of global citizenship.

Globalization and Nationalism

Studies of the psychological roots of global citizenship have found that persons high in global citizenship are also high on the personality traits of openness to experience and agreeableness from the Big Five personality traits and high in empathy and caring. Oppositely, the authoritarian personality , the social dominance orientation and psychopathy are all associated with less global human identification. Some of these traits are influenced by heredity as well as by early experiences, which, in turn, likely influence individuals' receptiveness to global human identification.

Research has found that those who are high in global human identification are less prejudiced toward many groups, care more about international human rights, worldwide inequality, global poverty and human suffering. They attend more actively to global concerns, value the lives of all human beings more equally, and give more in time and money to international humanitarian causes. They tend to be more politically liberal on both domestic and international issues.

Following a social identity approach , Reysen and Katzarska-Miller tested a model showing the antecedents and outcomes of global citizenship identification i. Global citizenship identification then predicts six broad categories of prosocial behaviors and values, including: intergroup empathy , valuing diversity, social justice , environmental sustainability , intergroup helping , and a felt responsibility to act.

At the same time that globalization is reducing the importance of nation-states , [30] the idea of global citizenship may require a redefinition of ties between civic engagement and geography. Face-to-face town hall meetings seem increasingly supplanted by electronic "town halls" not limited by space and time. Another interpretation given by several scholars of the changing configurations of citizenship due to globalization is the possibility that citizenship becomes a changed institution; even if situated within territorial boundaries that are national, if the meaning of the national itself has changed, then the meaning of being a citizen of that nation changes.

The lack of a universally recognized world body can put the initiative upon global citizens themselves to create rights and obligations. Rights and obligations as they arose at the formation of nation-states e. Thus, new concepts that accord certain "human rights" which arose in the 20th century are increasingly being universalized across nations and governments. This is the result of many factors, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the United Nations in , the aftermath of World War II and the Holocaust and growing sentiments towards legitimizing marginalized peoples e.

Couple this with growing awareness of our impact on the environment, and there is the rising feeling that citizen rights may extend to include the right to dignity and self-determination. If national citizenship does not foster these new rights, then global citizenship may seem more accessible. Global citizenship advocates may confer specific rights and obligations of human beings trapped in conflicts, those incarcerated as part of ethnic cleansing , and pre-industrialized tribes newly discovered by scientists living in the depths of dense jungle [32] [ verification needed ].

Article 1 states that "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2 states that "Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinions, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article 13 2 states that "Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. As evidence in today's modern world, events such as the Trial of Saddam Hussein have proven what British jurist A. Dicey said in , when he popularized the phrase "rule of law" in The opening of the United States Declaration of Independence , written by Thomas Jefferson in , states as follows:.

We hold these truths to be self-evident , that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights , that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed ; [39]. President Barack Obama in in a speech in Berlin.

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In general, a world citizen is a person who places global citizenship above any nationalistic or local identities and relationships. An early expression of this value is found in Diogenes of Sinope c. Albert Einstein described himself as a world citizen and supported the idea throughout his life, [45] famously saying "Nationalism is an infantile disease.

It is the measles of mankind.

  1. Global citizenship - Wikipedia!
  2. UNESCO | Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future | Module Globalisation!
  3. Dec.21, 2012 Anniversary Of Time: What The Maya Knew.
  4. Culture in the age of globalisation - DOC Research Institute.
  5. Global citizenship?
  6. 1st Edition;
  7. The Boy Who Zoomed?
  8. Schonfield founded the Commonwealth of World Citizens , later known by its Esperanto name "Mondcivitana Respubliko", which also issued a world passport; it declined after the s. It does not, however, imply abandonment of legitimate loyalties, the suppression of cultural diversity, the abolition of national autonomy, nor the imposition of uniformity. Its hallmark is 'unity in diversity. Other facets of world citizenship—including the promotion of human honour and dignity, understanding, amity, co-operation, trustworthiness, compassion and the desire to serve—can be deduced from those already mentioned.

    The concept was promoted by the self-declared World Citizen Garry Davis in , as a logical extension of the idea of individuals declaring themselves world citizens, and promoted by Robert Sarrazac, a former leader of the French Resistance who created the Human Front of World Citizens in Hundreds of cities mundialised themselves over a few years, most of them in France, and then it spread internationally, including to many German cities and to Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    One of the goals was to elect one delegate per million inhabitants to a People's World Constitutional Convention given the already then historical failure of the United Nations in creating a global institution able to negotiate a final world peace. To date, more than cities and towns have declared themselves World cities , including Beverly Hills , Los Angeles , Minneapolis , St.

    As a social movement, mundialization expresses the solidarity of populations of the globe and aims to establish institutions and supranational laws of a federative structure common to them, while respecting the diversity of cultures and peoples. The movement advocates for a new political organization governing all humanity , involving the transfer of certain parts of national sovereignty to a Federal World Authority , Federal World Government and Federal World Court.

    Basing its authority on the will of the people, supporters hope it could develop new systems to draw on the highest and best wisdom of all humanity, and solve major planetary problems like hunger , access to water , war , peace-keeping , pollution and energy. The mundialization movement includes the declaration of specified territory - a city, town, or state, for example - as world territory, with responsibilities and rights on a world scale.

    Culture in the age of globalisation

    Currently, the nation-state system and the United Nations offer no way for the people of the world to vote for world officials or participate in governing our world. International treaties or agreements lack the force of law. Mundialization seeks to address this lack by presenting a way to build, one city at a time, such a system of true World Law based upon the sovereignty of the whole.

    Author Shashi Tharoor feels that an Earth Anthem sung by people across the world can inspire planetary consciousness and global citizenship among people. Not all interpretations of global citizenship are positive. For example, Parekh advocates what he calls globally oriented citizenship, and states, "If global citizenship means being a citizen of the world, it is neither practicable nor desirable.

    Michael Byers, a professor in Political Science at the University of British Columbia , questions the assumption that there is one definition of global citizenship, and unpacks aspects of potential definitions. In the introduction to his public lecture, the UBC Internalization website states, "'Global citizenship' remains undefined. What, if anything, does it really mean? Is global citizenship just the latest buzzword? Neither criticism of global citizenship is anything new. Gouverneur Morris , a delegate to the Constitutional Convention United States , criticized "citizens of the world" while he was on the floor of the convention; August 9, He would not trust them.

    The men who can shake off their attachments to their own Country can never love any other. These attachments are the wholesome prejudices which uphold all Governments, Admit a Frenchman into your Senate, and he will study to increase the commerce of France: an Englishman, and he will feel an equal biass in favor of that of England.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The idea that all people have rights and civic responsibilities that come with being a member of the world. Main article: Global Citizenship Education. This article is missing information about statistics reported by polls. Please expand the article to include this information.

    Further details may exist on the talk page. October This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved 29 January Cambridge: Polity Press. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved 19 May Global Perspectives: A framework for global education in Australian schools.