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Popular Scottish wedding traditions. Scottish footballer Billy Liddell died - On this day in history. Detective Allan Pinkerton died - On this day in history. He is succeeded by his baby son, James V. Mary is now Queen of Scots and Queen of France. As a Catholic monarch she was in for trouble from the Protestant nobility. The wars of religion sweep across Scotland, as John Knox leads the road to reformation and the establishment of the Calvinist Church of Scotland.
The queen then marries Bothwell. The Protestant nobles rebel and Mary is imprisoned in Loch Leven castle. She is forced to abdicate in favour of her 6 month old baby, who succeeds her as James VI. She is defeated at Langside and flees to England. As a Catholic threat to the throne of Elizabeth I she is arrested and put into English custody for the rest of her life. James heads south to take up the reins of power in London. He is crowned as James I of Great Britain.
He only makes one trip back to Scotland in the next 22 years.
Scottish History in the Institute of Historical Research Library | Institute of Historical Research
Charles displays an arrogant disregard to the feelings of his Scottish subjects, opening the door to rebellion. Charles is forced to turn to Parliament in England to raise funds for an army to quell rebellion in the north. Charles is defeated, forcing him to go cap in hand again to the English Parliament. Charles is defeated by the Parliamentary army led by Oliver Cromwell, and in Scotland by the Covenanter army. Just as everything looks like settling down, Charles and the Scottish Royalists try again, and this time Cromwell stamps his authority.
Cromwell invades and conquers Scotland. All of Britain and Ireland come under the brutal control of the dictator.
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His pro-Catholic stance brings him into direct conflict with the English and Scottish Parliaments. He is grudgingly accepted due in no small part that he has two Protestant daughters, who are likely to succeed him. The English Parliament say enough is enough and force James out and into exile.
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They invite his daughter Mary and her husband the Dutch Protestant champion and nephew to James William of Orange to be joint king a queen. In return William must promise to be a constitutional monarch, whose authority is subject to the approval of Parliament. He raises the Highland Clans, and while initially successful they are defeated. However, the rebels, known as Jacobites and their cause rumbles on. The enforcement is left to John Dalrymple of Stair. The Chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe was late with his oath, and so Dalrymple ordered the annihilation of the entire clan.
As a blizzard raged 38 men, women and children were killed by the Redcoats at the massacre of Glencoe. It is an utter disaster, with most of the colonists dying of fevers. Scotland stood on the brink of bankruptcy. The Scots were not consulted and so pass the Act of Security, suggesting that Scotland may choose her own king if need be.
The English fearing this would open the back door to France, and knowing that Scotland was still reeling financially decided to move towards a political union that would once and for all silence their troublesome northern neighbour. Scotland and England cease to be independent nation states. The treaty guarantees Scots Law and the freedom of the Church of Scotland.
This inflames the Jacobites who believe the crown should have gone to her half-brother James Francis Stuart. After taking Edinburgh the army marches south. Charles flees the scene and finally escapes to France. The Government is now determined to break the power of the clan chief and destroy once and for all the clan system, ushering in a bleak, unparalleled period of social upheaval for the Scottish Highlanders.
Across the world his birthday is still celebrated. James Craig, a 21 year old architect wins the commission to design the New Town a symbol of the new Scotland. At the same time the industrial revolution sweeps through the Central Lowlands, especially in Lanarkshire with Glasgow becoming the greatest shipbuilding city in the world.
As the clan system was destroyed chiefs became landlords, and driven by profit they would evict thousands from their native glens, replacing them with sheep.
Many went south to work in Glasgow, but countless thousands undertook the hazardous crossing to America and Canada to start a new life, building the British Empire in the process.