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Contents:


  1. Sahara Reporters
  2. Talk:Katyn massacre/Archive 1
  3. n1 relationship saboteur insecurity he or she Manual
  4. WC17 Posters

March 20, Boris Table 1. Gasoline Oil AGO. TANK members waterways of loaded with 2. Government Area of Bayelsa State. Cameroonians and were arrested at caught with arrested by Nigerian three Nigerians the Agbani area, drums containing Navy handed over the near Bakassi litres of petrol seven suspects to the Local each, and Akwa Ibom Government concealed under Commandant of the Area, the border consumer goods.

Bayelsa State. A of litres of crude oil Navy and handed over Bayelsa state. Command in Bayelsa. The suspects were Table 1. August 26, Nigerian Navy and Brass L. A of handed over to EFCC. August 24, August 11, July 9, Ghanaians near Port laden with , arrested by Nigerian Harcourt in litres of stolen Navy and handed Rivers State.

October 5, Seven 20 Ghanaians and Barges were Alleged illegal The seven barges barges six Nigerians impounded in bunkering.

Sahara Reporters

June 19, Government crude oil. Area of Rivers State. Area of Delta crude oil worth State. It inter-ethnic conflicts among the people as well as created then means that national security of a nation can extend a general sense of insecurity in the entire region. Many of to the well-being of its citizens, institutions, interests, the arms in circulation in the Niger Delta, including a development plans, economy etc.

The social and security implications of all these include Oil theft that has led to piracy and criminal activities in the destruction of the economy of communities, arms the Niger Delta create insecurity and breach of the peace proliferation, increased attraction to crimes, higher that are likely to affect legitimate social and economic incidence of school drop-outs, increased inflow of migrant activities in the country. These problems also have the workers to service the illegal business and the very damaging consequence of giving the signal to the consequences of militarisation of communities.

All these rest of the international community that Nigeria is not a negative impacts have long-term implications that may safe and secure place and as such not suitable for take generations to reverse if at all possible Igbuku, economic investment and activities. This is particularly Similary, Katsouris and Sayne noted that important in view of the efforts being made to create the oil theft has been the major cause of violent conflict in the desired atmosphere to attract foreign investment.

Niger Delta. Most of the oil theft actors exchange the However, it should be noted that insecurity, especially in crude oil for heavy arms at the high sea, while others use the Niger Delta subregion is not a problem that is unique the proceeds to import arms into the region, with the to Nigeria. The US, the UK and many other countries, principal aim of using the arms to secure their illegal face the challenges of insecurity within their borders on a activities in the region. The arms are used for attacks daily basis. The difference between them and our and counter attacks from different gang groups and country, Nigeria is how they manage the threats; how security agents, as every group is bound to have knowledgeable and prepared they are; how they deploy adequate arms and be gun-battle ready to enable them resources against the threats; how effective they are; remain in the business.

This has resulted in proliferation how patriotic and united these people are against threats of small and heavy arms in the region, leading to of insecurity Adejumo, It is the kidnapping activities of expatriates, oil and top consequences of the failing capability of the Nigerian government workers for financial ransom in the region. In all, what we need is a good activities in the Niger Delta region is spreading speedily government with strong political will and determination to to other parts of Nigeria and beyond.

Firstly, with the tackle the challenges of insecurity in the Niger Delta in heavy arms in the possession of the youths and the particular and Nigeria in general. However, it should be constant attacks on oil and non oil facilities for economic noted that a good government is possible in as much as benefits of the actors, youths from other geo-political people who are in positions of authority are committed to regions see the oil theft activities as very lucrative and the discharge of their duties; are determined to serve are recruited into oil theft activities as a means of with zeal and patriotism; and are ready to stand by the economic empowerment.

The same youths irrespective truth and die for it Adejumo, Such initiatives include; The sea pirates also benefit from the oil theft, increased enforcement measures against the maritime thereby resulting to the escalation of sea pirate activities trade in stolen oil which involved the Nigerian Navy being in the waterways, and bridging free movement of goods tasked with the responsibility for registration of vessels in and services in the sub-region.

The pirates attack oil Nigerian waters, a measure which was to be investors and their investments, while the state security accompanied by increased prosecution of transgressors, agents give counter attack to the pirates, thereby leading the establishment of a task force on national strategic to constant violence and attacks in the West African infrastructure intended to monitor and respond to oil theft, waterways. In a bid to curb oil theft and other vices responsibilities.

But four months after the announcement in the Niger Delta, former late President Yar Adua by the President, members of the committee remain initiated the Amnesty programme to the Niger Delta unknown while the timeframe for submission of their militant. He also awarded security contracts to ex-militant report is yet to be made public Dodondawa, Despite the huge contracts, persons involved in it even from within and outside the crude oil theft has increased geometrically over few country Uwotu, Consequently, the Federal years.

While crude oil theft has remained a global issue, Government in conjunction with major stakeholders in the it has continued unabated in Nigeria with no immediate industry, mostly, international oil companies, host solution in sight Dodondawa, ; Ebiri, Recently, President economic survival.

The recent increase in oil theft, illegal Goodluck has taken some initiatives and steps to curb bunkering, piracy and other forms of criminality in the the menace. Log in New account. Email or Username. Password Show. Remember me. Log in.


  • So Who Was Elias Kuzwayo? Nationalism, Collaboration and the Picaresque in Natal..
  • When Nembe went on peaceful protest!
  • When Nembe went on peaceful protest.
  • Gretchen Gillespie.

Last name. I agree with the Terms. Create account. Reset password. Welcome, Login to your account. Forget password? No account? Sign Up. Sign in Recover your password. A password will be e-mailed to you. This commission, known as theWillink Commission, after its chair, Henry Willink, reported in TheWillink Commission considered and rejected demands for the creation of newstates, but recommended certain other administrative arrangements to allay thefears of minorities, in the form of constitutional guarantees of certainrights, regional advisory councils for "minority areas," and a federal board toconsider the specific problems of the riverine areas of the Niger Delta.

The tripartite structure of colonial rule was thus inheritedby the new government at independence in , reflecting and reinforcing thepolitical dominance of Nigeria's three major ethnic groups. Although theWillink Commission had rejected the option, minority groups remained convincedthat the creation of new states in which they would be majorities would improvetheir political and economic status. These demands became impossible to resistby those playing ethnic politics at federal level.

As early as a newconstitution was adopted and the Western Region was divided into two, with thecreation of the Mid-West Region, giving autonomous status to the twoadministrative districts where Yorubas were not in a majority. Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, an Igbo, to power saw a brief and disastrousattempt to create a unified state, with the abolition of the federal system. The immediate reaction from the north, threatened by the southern dominancethat would result from centralized government on a unified basis, resulted in aJuly counter-coup staged by junior northern army officers, which brought Lt.

Yakubu Gowon to power at federal level. In May , Gowonannounced that the four regions would be abolished and replaced by a newfederal system based on twelve states, which sought to address the concerns ofminority groups and thus increase their support for the federation, while atthe same time breaking down the powers of the regions. The Igbos' loss ofcentral political power was thus exacerbated by the creation in the Niger Deltaof Rivers State, which cut off the Igbo heartland from direct access to the seaand gave control of Port Harcourt, an important port at the beginning of itsoil boom where there were substantial Igbo commercial interests, to a new stategovernment.

Shortly after the announcement of the new state system, in May, the secession of Biafra was declared by the military governor of theformer Eastern Region, Lt. Odumegwu Ojukwu. The civil war of to ,lost by the secessionists, increased the strength of federal government and thecentralization of power. The creation of the twelve state system, which came intoeffect in April , began an as yet endless process of alteration to thesystem of revenue allocation in the federation between central and stategovernments and among the states.

Increasingly, states contributed theirrevenues to a Distributable Pool Account DPA at federal level, shared out onthe basis of population, need and other criteria, while the "derivationprinciple," by which revenues were spent in the geographical area from whichthey were derived, was downgraded. In , when the new states were created, mining rents androyalties were split 15 percent to the federal government, 35 percent to theDPA, and 50 percent on a derivation basis. Obvious imbalances between statesled to the review of the system, and in backdated to the shares ofmining rents and royalties became 5 percent to the federal government, 50percent to the DPA, and 45 percent to the state of derivation.

From , the federalgovernment introduced a distinction between onshore and offshore rents androyalties, taking percent of offshore revenue itself. In , with thearrival of massively increased oil revenues following the OPEC price rise of, the share of onshore revenue paid to the state of origin was reduced to20 percent, while the federal government was to pay its entire share of on andoffshore revenue into the DPA. In , the derivation principle was droppedaltogether in favor of a Special Account for mineral producing areas. The influx of cash placed strong pressures on the governmentto increase public expenditure in line with increased revenue: total federalexpenditure increased by a massive percent in , and doubled again thenext year.

Following a pattern common to manystates dependent on extractive industries for their revenue, the non-oil sectorof the economy in Nigeria, including agriculture, was neglected and steadilydeclined: Nigeria shifted from being an exporter of agricultural products tobeing a major importer of food. States became increasingly dependent on federalallocations, financial discipline and accounting deteriorated rapidly, andlevels of imports and expenditure reached unsustainable levels.

In the contextof the weak political institutions of a newly independent and deeply dividedstate, there was little chance that any economic control could be exercised. In July , Gowon was overthrown by a fresh and bloodlesscoup, which installed the six-month administration of Gen. Murtala Mohammed,before he was killed in an abortive coup attempt and succeeded by his deputy,Lt. Olusegun Obasanjo. In February , the Murtala Mohammed governmentincreased the number of states to nineteen, adding four in the north, two inthe south west, and one in the south east.

In , the Obasanjo regime handedover power to the civilian government of Alhaji Shehu Shagari, following alengthy process of constitutional debate, first in a constitution draftingcommittee established in and subsequently in a constituent assembly whichtook over the process in The constitution provided for an executivepresident, on the U. The period of civilian rule saw a loss of power from thefederal government to the states. In particular, states demanded and eventuallyreceived a greater share in allocation of revenues.

The formula in operation in, giving the federal government 76 percent of shared revenues, the states21 percent, and elected local governments a new uniform tier of government 3percent, was rejected. After much political debate and conflict, a new formulafinally came into effect in , giving the federal government 55 percent,states The debatearound revenue allocation from the center itself generated campaigns for thecreation of new states and new local government areas , as local politicianssought to benefit from the patronage that resulted from distributing revenue atstate level.

At the same time, financial controls on government spendingdeclined yet further. The government took no steps to guard against futurerevenue falls by investing abroad or creating an oil stabilization fund. Currency appreciation and domestic inflation made local industriesuncompetitive internationally and boosted imports, leading to balance ofpayments difficulties during oil-induced recessions in and from until the early s.

Expenditure rapidly outpaced income, and, with oil priceslumps in the early s, external debt more than doubled from to The oil price fell from around U. In the same year, the ratio of debt to GNP reached This boom and bust cycle contributed to politicalinstability: in January , military officers again put an end to civilianrule, and installed a fresh military regime under Maj. Mohammadu Buhari,which immediately launched a "war against indiscipline," cracking down ondissent, and, supposedly, corruption, with a barrage of decrees. Buhari in turnwas overthrown by Gen. Ibrahim Babangida in August , who early on promiseda return to civilian rule.

As the transition program was repeatedly extended,and with it the competition for future revenue share and agitation for morestates, Babangida raised the number of states by two, to twenty-one, in and by another nine, to thirty, in Local governments were also strengthened,and their share of revenue allocation increased from 10 to 15 and then 20percent, with payments to be made directly from the federal government, and notvia states.

In , in the context of Babangida's transition program,the government established the Oil Mineral Producing Areas DevelopmentCommission OMPADEC "to address the difficulties and sufferings of inhabitantsof the Oil Producing Areas of Nigeria," and the share of federal revenueallocated specifically to oil and mineral producing communities was doubledfrom 1.

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Talk:Katyn massacre/Archive 1

In June , the presidential elections which were to bethe culmination of the transition program were annulled, when it became clearthat Moshood. Abiola, a Yoruba from the southwest, was going to win. Aninterim government was put in place, itself overthrown by yet another coup in November, which installed General Sani Abacha in power. Babangida's transitionprogram was aborted, to be virtually duplicated by a fresh program, announcedin October , to terminate on October 1, In May , elections were held for a national constitutionalconference, although of members, ninety-six were nominated by the head ofstate, and other candidates were carefully screened.

The conference produced areport and draft constitution, which was presented to General Abacha in June The draft constitution was not published before the death of Abacha inJune , though elements of the constitutional provisions had become known;for example, that there should be a rotational presidency, so that each regionof the country would be represented in turn, and that other offices shouldsimilarly represent the "federal character" of Nigeria. The Abacha government's transition program also brought amultiplication of administrative units. A State Creation and Local GovernmentBoundary Adjustment Committee considered requests from those groups as yetunrecognized within the federal system for their own government structures, andmade recommendations to the federal government.

In October , General Abachaincreased the number of states yet again, to thirty-six, at the same timeincreasing the number of local government areas by to including thosein Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory. In July , following the death of Abacha, the new head ofstate Gen. Abdulsalami Abubakar announced that the Abacha transition programwould be scrapped, and a new program instituted, under more open conditions, toterminate in May ; however, the constitution presented to Abacha in would be retained despite the defects in the drafting process.

Abubakarpromised to "publish and widely circulate the draft constitution presented by theNational Constitutional Conference prior to consideration and approval by theProvisional Ruling Council," and the draft constitution was finallypublished in September In its report, thecommittee recommended instead the adoption of the constitution, with someamendments, including adopting the provisions of the draft constitutionfor an increase in the revenue allocation to the oil producing regions.

The draft constitution reflects the fact that theconstitutional conference could not reach a consensus on the question of futurerevenue allocation, although it recognized the need for greater revenue to goto the oil producing areas. It provides that:. In determining the formula, the National Assembly shalltake into account allocation principles especially those of Population,Equality of States, Internal Revenue Generation, Land Mass, Terrain, as well asPopulation Density, provided that the principle of derivation shall beconstantly reflected in any approved formula as being not less than 13 percentof the revenue accruing to the Federation Account directly from any naturalresources, so however, that the figure of the allocation for derivation shallbe deemed to include any amount that may be set aside for funding any specialauthority or agency for the development of the State or States of derivation.

Although the allocation of 13 percent of oil revenue to thestates from which it is derived would represent a marked return to earlierpatterns of revenue allocation, it is not clear that the allocation woulddirectly benefit the communities in which the oil is produced, rather than thestate governments in the oil producing areas, where the money would likely beused for patronage rather than development. For the time being, however, therevenue allocation to the oil producing communities remains at 3 percent.

General Abubakar also promised that the PSTF would apply thebulk of its resources to the roads, education and water supply sectors, andthat "a fully reconstituted OMPADEC will be provided with the wherewithal asprovided in the Revenue Allocation Formula to enable it to discharge itsobligations to the oil producing areas. The Nigerian economy currently faces further shocks as aresult of the falling price of oil on the international market, reducing thepot that can be distributed among those who demand a share.

The budget wasbased on an estimated average oil price of U. In his independence day speech on October 1, , General Abubakar estimatedthe impact of the fall in the oil price to be a decrease of 20 to 25 percent inforeign exchange earnings; [75] [75]in his January 1, budget speech, Abubakar announced that actual receiptsfrom crude oil in had amounted to only 62 percent of budgeted revenue.

The revenue allocation formulae do not tell the whole storyof the distribution of the oil money. The Nigerian political economy has cometo depend on a spectacular system of corruption, involving systematic kickbacksfor the award of contracts, special bank accounts in the control of thepresidency, allocation of oil or refined products to the politically loyal tosell for personal profit, and sweeteners for a whole range of political favors.

In effect across all sectors of the economy, this system of corruption isparticularly entrenched in the oil sector, its natural home. It is thiscorruption that ensures that the oil money is sent to private bank accounts inZurich or the Cayman Islands rather than spent on primary health care andeducation in Nigeria.

Decisions relating to oil contracts were hyper-centralizedin the president's office to ensure that the benefits involved went only topolitical supporters. The oil trading companies-Swiss-based Addax and Glencore,and London-based Arcadia had the largest share of the Nigerian trade underGeneral Abacha's government-which purchase Nigerian oil for onward sale on thespot or term markets, have close links with individual political figures in themilitary or civilian hierarchy.

Getting a share of the trade is dependent onpolitical patronage, and substantial commissions are paid for that patronage. The death of Abacha, the consequent falling from favor of the Lebanese-bornChagoury brothers who had influenced decisions as to the allocation ofpolitical benefits in relation to the oil industry during his period as head ofstate , the dismissal of oil minister Daniel Etete, and the reforms announcedby Abubakar temporarily damaged the positions of some of the traders,especially Glencore.

However, their fortunes appear to be recovering asprevious ways of doing business, including generous commissions, havereasserted themselves. Nigeria's oil resources have also been used to buy favor inthe region. In September , General Abacha awarded six crude term contractsto member states of the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS ,allowing them to sell the oil or use it, as they pleased, bringing to nine thenumber of neighboring governments benefitting from Nigerian largesse.

Millions of dollars appropriated by General Abacha and hisclose associates are currently being recovered by the government of GeneralAbubakar, and many contracts awarded by Abacha have been canceled. Such effortsare traditional on change of regime, but have yet to lead to cleaner governmentin the long term: a commission of inquiry headed by economist Pius Okigbo,appointed by General Abacha himself shortly after taking power in ,estimated that U.

The Niger Delta is one of the world's largest wetlands, andthe largest in Africa: it encompasses over 20, square kilometers. It is avast floodplain built up by the accumulation of centuries of silt washed downthe Niger and Benue Rivers, composed of four main ecological zones-coastalbarrier islands, mangroves, fresh water swamp forests, and lowlandrainforests-whose boundaries vary according to the patterns of seasonalflooding. The mangrove forest of Nigeria is the third largest in the world andthe largest in Africa; over 60 percent of this mangrove, or 6, squarekilometers, is found in the Niger Delta.

The freshwater swamp forests of thedelta reach 11, square kilometers and are the most extensive in west and centralAfrica.


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  4. The high rainfall in southern Nigeria in the rainy seasonleads to regular inundation of the low, poorly drained terrain of the NigerDelta, and an ecosystem characterized by the ebb and flow of water. Over thelast few decades, however, the building of dams along the Niger and BenueRivers and their tributaries has significantly reduced sedimentation andseasonal flooding in the delta.

    Coupled with riverbank and coastal erosion, itis estimated that, if it continued at a constant rate, the result of diminishedsiltation in the delta would be the loss of about 40 percent of the inhabitedland in the delta within thirty years. Nigeria's mangrove forest is still relatively intact: anestimated 5 to 10 percent has been lost as a result of settlement or oil activities.

    The lowland rainforest, on the other hand, hasvirtually gone: the zone it previously occupied covers about 7, squarekilometers of the Niger Delta, but most of this has been cleared foragriculture. For the most part, the specific standards set arecomparable to those in force in Europe or the U. Nigerian law provides that "all minerals, mineral oils andnatural gas" are the property of the federal government.

    Only a Nigerian citizen or a company incorporated in Nigeria mayapply for such a license. The minister of petroleum resources has generalsupervisory powers over oil company activities, and may revoke a license undercertain conditions, including if the operator fails to comply with "good oilfield practice. Oil companies are obliged to "adopt all practicableprecautions including the provision of up-to-date equipment" to preventpollution, and must take "prompt steps to control and, if possible, end it," ifpollution does occur.

    An EIA iscompulsory in certain cases, including oil and gas fields development andconstruction of oil refineries, some pipelines, and processing and storagefacilities. As with the rest of the regulatory framework governingprotection of the environment in Nigeria, there is in practice littleenforcement of the requirements to carry out EIAs, either by FEPA or by theDPR's regulatory arm, the Petroleum Inspectorate, and virtually no qualitycontrol over the assessments carried out. As one study concluded: "Most stateand local government institutions involved in environmental resource managementlack funding, trained staff, technical expertise, adequate information,analytical capability and other pre-requisites for implementing comprehensivepolicies and programmes.

    In the case of the oil industry, overlapping mandatesand jurisdiction between FEPA and the DPR frequently contribute tocounterproductive competition. The oil companies operating in Nigeria maintain that theiractivities are conducted to the highest environmental standards, and that theimpact of oil on the environment of the delta is minimal. Shell, for example,has stated that "Shell Nigeria believes that most of the environmental problemsare not the result of oil operations. Anecological war is highly lethal, the more so as it is unconventional. It isomnicidal in effect. Human life, flora, fauna, the air, fall at its feet, andfinally, the land itself dies.

    n1 relationship saboteur insecurity he or she Manual

    Environmental groups accuse the oil companies of operatingdouble standards; of allowing practices in Nigeria that would never bepermitted in North America or Europe. The companies deny this, although Shell,for example, has defended the idea of national rather than internationalenvironmental standards. As long as we continue toimprove, varying standards are inevitable.

    Shell admits, however, that its facilities in the delta arein need of upgrading: "Most of the facilities were constructed between thes and early s to the then prevailing standards. SPDC would not buildthem that way today. Unfortunately, the oil industry's own evaluations ofenvironmental damage, required for the production of EIAs, which mightotherwise provide a useful basis for assessing environmental damage, areinadequate. The review of thesubstantial document concluded that, although some sections of the report wereof high quality, there were serious defects.

    Overall, "the EnvironmentalStatements fall well short of what would be required in any developed countryand do not allow the reader to make an informed judgement about the relativeenvironmental benefits and costs of the scheme.


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    4. It is normal practice toconsider alternatives in an environmental assessment, but this has not beendone. Significant issues have been overlooked or deferred to a later date. As a result of deficiencies in such studies and the paucityof independent academic research, there is little publicly available hardinformation on the state of the environment in the delta or the impact that oilproduction has had. Problems identified include flooding and coastal erosion,sedimentation and siltation, degradation and depletion of water and coastalresources, land degradation, oil pollution, air pollution, land subsidence,biodiversity depletion, noise and light pollution, health problems, and lowagricultural production, as well as socio-economic problems, lack of communityparticipation, and weak or non-existent laws and regulations.

      According to the official estimates of the Nigerian NationalPetroleum Corporation NNPC , based on the quantities reported by the operatingcompanies, approximately 2, cubic meters of oil are spilled in separateincidents annually. It can be safely assumed that, due to under-reporting, thereal figure is substantially higher: conservative estimates place it at up toten times higher. Two serious spills took place in early On January 12,, a major spill of more than 40, barrels of crude oil 1.

      Mobil estimated that more than 90percent of the oil had dispersed or evaporated naturally, though the spilltraveled "hundreds of kilometers farther than expected," and some barrels 21, U. About twenty communities, with a total population of about one million, wereconsidered to be the worst hit, especially at the mouth of the PenningtonRiver. However, shoreline cleanup had still not begun by January 28, because "staffhad to train crew leaders and deliver appropriate gear to the sites," and aslate as March some sites were still visibly contaminated.

      On March 27, ,a further spill of 20, barrels , U. Shell identified the cause ofthe spill as "pipeline failure" and closed in , bpd of oil from eightflowstations.

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      According to Shell, relief materials, including food and water,were provided to the communities affected at the time, and clean-up of thespill has been completed. As of September , production at Jones Creekremained closed, pending the outcome of a technical investigation into thecause of the spill. As a result of the small size of the oilfields in the NigerDelta, there is an extensive network of pipelines between the fields, as wellas numerous small networks of flowlines-the narrow diameter pipes that carryoil from wellheads to flowstations-allowing many opportunities for leaks.

      Inonshore areas, most pipelines and flowlines are laid above ground. Manypipelines and flowlines are old and subject to corrosion: fifteen years is theestimated safe lifespan of a pipeline, but in numerous places in the deltapipelines aged twenty or twenty-five years can be found. SPDC stated that itcompleted a program for the replacement of older pipelines in swamp areasduring , and claimed that as a result the volume of spills due to corrosionwas reduced by 36 percent compared to The company also stated that itplanned to renew and bury 2, kilometers of lines by the end of , andthat all would by then be buried.

      DPR regulations require the body responsible for a spill toclean the site and restore it to its original state so far as possible. Soil ata spill site on land must contain no more than thirty parts per million ppm of oil after six months. SPDC official policy is that "All hydrocarbon andchemical spills in the vicinity of the company's operations shall be cleaned upin a timely and efficient manner.

      This is followed with the initiation of clean-up actions. At Kolo Creek flow station, a spill that Shellalleged was caused by sabotage occurred in July , and was cleaned by puttingcontaminated soil into pits; one year later, during flood season, the communitybelieved that a new spill had taken place when this oil was released back intothe water. SPDC, which stated that thespill was caused by sabotage a claim contested by local residents , said thatthe delay had been "because the community prevented access to the site todetermine the cause of the spill and to clamp the hole," demanding "payments toappease their deities, relief materials and immediate cash compensation," while"ethnic clashes between Ijaws and Itsekiris in April, May and June causedfurther delay," because, during the Warri crisis, "SPDC restricted operationsin the Western Division to essential activities to minimize movements on thewater and the risk of hijack and further hostage-taking.

      Shellstates that the pipeline was finally clamped in July , and that clean-upoperations were to begin in August but were delayed until November because twobarges and a crew boat were seized. In March , local environmentalactivists reported that in the process of clearing the spill several hectaresof forest had been set alight by a contractor who had collected contaminatedmaterial into heaps for burning.

      This method of clearing spills is not regardedas satisfactory by international standards, and in this case additionallyappears to have been carried out in a negligent fashion, allowing a seriousfire to occur. SPDC confirmed to an oil industry publication that a Shellcontractor had set the blaze on March 25, damaging ten hectares, and that theprocedures used were not in compliance with their requirements. The effect on the environment of the contaminated "formationwater" also known as "produced water" separated from the hydrocarbon fluidswith which it is mixed underground and deliberately discharged from flowstations and terminals is largely unevaluated.

      Formation water is in some casestreated to remove residual oil, but in other cases released directly into theenvironment. While the water discharged generally contains low concentrationsof oil, its large volume, together with occasional oil spillages, could wellhave long term effects, depending partly on the ecological setting in which thedischarge is made. In offshore locations or in areas with rapid drainageincreased dilution reduces the polluting effects of the water; on land and inthe swamp, however, the cumulative effect "can be devastating at somelocations.

      Nearbycommunities have complained at the effects of these effluents on fish stocks. The DPR sets a limit of 20 ppm hydrocarbon contamination foreffluent discharged to nearshore waters and 10 ppm for inland waters; FEPA'slimit is 10 ppm for coastal nearshore waters. However, during the same period,a Shell employee noted the presence of an oily sheen on the water immediatelyafter discharge, suggesting a concentration of at least 50 ppm.

      Nigerian crude oil is very light low density , with a rapidevaporation loss which could be up to 50 percent within forty-eight hours. Shell states that "Complete rehabilitation afterclean-up takes months. Moreover, the lighter compounds that evaporate quickly such as toluene andbenzene also have a relatively high solubility and can be toxic at very lowconcentrations. Whatever the long term impact on the environment, spills canbe devastating for those directly affected, especially in the dry land orfreshwater swamp areas, where the effects are concentrated in particularlocations.

      Oil leaks are usually from high pressure pipelines, and thereforespurt out over a wide area, destroying crops, artificial fishponds used forfish farming, "economic trees" that is, economically valuable trees, includingthose growing "wild" but owned by particular families and otherincome-generating assets.

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      Even a small leak can thus wipe out a year's foodsupply for a family, with it wiping out income from products sold for cash. Theconsequences of such loss of livelihood can range from children missing schoolbecause their parents are unable to afford the fees, to virtual destitution. Even if the land recovers for the following year, the spill has consequencesover a much longer period for the families directly affected. Several farmersinterviewed by Human Rights Watch affected by spills appeared dazed andpractically unable to take in the consequences of a recent spill, or toestimate the costs, beyond a simple statement that they had no idea how theywould now manage.

      In tidal salt water areas, where fishing grounds tend to beopen, individual families are less likely to be totally wiped out, while spillswill in any event disperse more quickly. Nevertheless, big spills can stillhave a significant economic effect: following the Mobil spill of January ,savings by fishermen into microcredit schemes set up at a B. Similarly, since in most areas of the delta drinking wateris drawn straight from streams and creeks, with no other option available tothe local people, a spill can cause severe problems for the populationdependent on the water source affected, even if it disperses rapidly and thewater soon returns to its previous condition.

      Crude oil contains thousands ofdifferent chemicals, many of them toxic and some known to be carcinogenic withno determined safe threshold for human exposure. In many villages near oil installations, even when there hasbeen no recent spill, an oily sheen can be seen on the water, which in freshwater areas is usually the same water that the people living there use fordrinking and washing.

      In April , samples taken from water used for drinkingand washing by local villagers were analyzed in the U. A sample from Luawii,in Ogoni, where there had been no oil production for four years, had 18 ppm ofhydrocarbons in the water, times the level allowed in drinking water in theEuropean Union E.